Pure titanium is a silver-white metal. Titanium mineral […]
Pure titanium is a silver-white metal. Titanium minerals are widely distributed in nature, accounting for about 0.6% of the earth's crust, second only to aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium, but more abundant than copper, tin, manganese, and zinc Several times or even dozens of times. The melting point of titanium is 1725 ° C. Its main feature is its low density and high strength. Compared with steel, its density is only equivalent to 57% of steel, and its strength and hardness are similar to steel. Compared with aluminum, aluminum has a lower density than titanium, but its mechanical strength is poor. Therefore, titanium has both the advantages of steel (high strength) and aluminum (light texture). Pure titanium has good plasticity, its toughness is more than 2 times that of pure iron, and its heat resistance and corrosion resistance are also very good.
Because of these advantages, titanium has become a prominent rare metal since the 1950s. Titanium and its alloys were first used in the manufacture of aircraft, rockets, missiles, ships, etc., and began to be used in the chemical and petroleum sectors. For example, in the manufacture of supersonic aircraft, due to the high surface temperature of these aircraft during high-speed flight, aluminum alloy or stainless steel is used. At this temperature, the original performance has been lost and the titanium alloy remains good above 550 ℃ The mechanical properties can be used to manufacture high-speed aircraft that exceed 3 times the speed of sound. The amount of titanium used in this aircraft accounts for 95% of the total weight of its structure, so it is known as "titanium aircraft", and more than half of the world's titanium is used to make important parts of aircraft fuselages and jet engines. In the atomic energy industry, titanium is used to manufacture the main parts of nuclear reactors. In the chemical industry, titanium is mainly used to manufacture various vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, pipes, pumps, and valves. If titanium is added to stainless steel, only about one percent is added, which greatly improves the ability to resist rust.